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托福阅读非常规修辞目的题怎么破?

2018-05-07 环球教育整理

  在托福阅读里,有一类题叫“修辞目的题”,出题频率为1-2 道/每篇。实际考试中的问法类似于“Why does the author mention XXX?”这里所谓的“修辞”, 即作者为了提高表达效果所用到的写作手法。文学类的作品里用“比喻”“排比”之类的修辞手法,为的是使表达更生动形象。

  而用在托福考试阅读这样学术类的文章里,自然是为了更好地证明诠释作者的观点或理论。 因此“修辞目的题”的答案多与被作者提到,即题目中提到的内容,所支持的观点有关。这就是为什么,该类题型的常规解法就是根据题目中提到的文章内容,找到其支持的观点句。因为大部分情况下,观点句在先,例证句在后。

  所以,同学们在找到题干中的“XXX”之后, 再往前找到其支持的句子即可,且两个句子一前一后不会相隔较远。

  下面请看例1

  ▼

  Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but now can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal. Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Bearing the teeth in a hostile way,as noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, may be a universal sign of anger. As the originator of the theory of evolution,Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the absence of language. (OG Test 1 The Expression of Emotions)

  The author mentions “Baring the teeth in a hostile way” in order to

  (A) Differentiate one possible meaning of a particular facial expression from other meanings of it

  (B) Support Darwin's theory of evolution

  (C) Provide an example of a facial expression whose meaning is widely understood

  (D) Contrast a facial expression that is easily understood with other facial expressions

  这个题可以用到常规的解法——找例子支持的观点句。

  我们发现 “Baring the teeth…” 这一句的前一句为一个与该句并列的例证句,它们共同证明的是 “It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal.” 这句话。那么,可以得知该段这 一部分的结构为“观点-例子1-例子2”。因此答案为C。

  然而,这种常规的方法,并不能应对练习或托福考试中所有的“修辞目的题”。因为作者在行文时,为了证明观点,可能会用到多种结构的表达方式。而我们考生需要注意的,就是缕清题干中提到的信息与上下句之间的关系,灵活而又有效地找到作者想借此表达的观点。

  下面我们来看例2

  ▼

  For years historians have sought to identify crucial elements in the eighteenth-century rise in industry, technology, and economic power known as the Industrial Revolution, and many give prominence to the problem of energy. Until the eighteen century, people relied on energy derived from plants as well as animal and human muscle to provide power. Increased efficiency in the use of water and wind helped with such tasks as pumping, milling, or sailing. However, by the eighteenth century, Great Britain in particular was experiencing and energy shortage. Wood, the primary source of heat for homes and industries and also used in the iron industry as processed charcoal, was diminishing in supply. Great Britain had large amounts of coal; however, there were not yet efficient means by which to produce mechanical energy or to power machinery. This was to occur with progress in the development of the steam engine. (TPO 26 Energy and the Industrial Revolution)

  Why does the author provide the information that “Great Britain had large amounts of coal”?

  (A) To reject the claim that Britain was facing an energy shortage in the eighteen century

  (B) To explain why coal rather than other energy resources became the primary source of heat for homes and industries in eighteencentury Britain

  (C) To indicate that Britain's energy shortage was not the result of a lack of fuel

  (D) To explain why coal mining became an important industry in nineteenth-century.

  该题的正确答案为 C。而有不少同学会选择 A。我们一起来追溯选 A 的同学的错误思路。

  “Great Britain had large amounts of coal” 意思是 “英国有大量的煤”。往前找被支持的观点句, 前一句说“Wood,…, was diminishing in supply.” 意为“木材供应不足” 。

  所以 “coal” 和 “wood” 这两句都是客观事实举例,还应该往前找,再 前一句话是 “However, by the eighteenth century, Great Britain in particular was experiencing and energy shortage.” 即 “十八世纪的英国正在经 历能源短缺”,此句为概括句。

  那么刚才读过的三 句话的关系是 “缺能源-缺木材-不缺煤”。而 “Great Britain had large amounts of coal“ 之 后 还 有 个 ”however“ , 可能就是想反驳 “十八世纪的英国 正在经历能源短缺”。

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